Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php on line 470

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php on line 547

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php on line 1124

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/PEAR.php on line 563

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/PEAR.php on line 566

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/installation.class.inc.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method c5t_setting::read() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/core.inc.php on line 256

Strict Standards: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::connect() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::parseDSN() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php on line 520

Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php on line 557

Strict Standards: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 34

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1293

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 955

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 960

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1302

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php on line 1286

Strict Standards: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 68

Strict Standards: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/core.inc.php on line 271

Strict Standards: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Strict Standards: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Strict Standards: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/update.class.inc.php on line 156

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/login.class.inc.php on line 137

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/login.class.inc.php on line 203

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/login.class.inc.php on line 334

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_session::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/login.class.inc.php on line 68

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_session::start() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/session.class.inc.php on line 178

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php:470) in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/session.class.inc.php on line 69

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB.php:470) in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/session.class.inc.php on line 69

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 566

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 1642

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 1799

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

Strict Standards: Declaration of HTML_QuickForm_hidden::accept() should be compatible with HTML_QuickForm_element::accept(&$renderer, $required = false, $error = NULL) in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm/hidden.php on line 0

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

Deprecated: Non-static method query::add_element() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/list.class.inc.php on line 302

Deprecated: Non-static method query::get_instance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/query.class.inc.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Non-static method c5t_comment::identifier() should not be called statically in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/comment.php on line 137

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_time::current_timestamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/commentlist.class.inc.php on line 104

Strict Standards: mktime(): You should be using the time() function instead in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/time.class.inc.php on line 28

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::fields() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/commentlist.class.inc.php on line 106

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::query() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/list.class.inc.php on line 433

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 149

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1154

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 955

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 960

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 151

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::query() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/list.class.inc.php on line 436

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 149

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1154

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 955

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 960

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 151

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_time::format_date() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/commentlist.class.inc.php on line 142

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_time::format_time() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/commentlist.class.inc.php on line 143

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::call_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/commentlist.class.inc.php on line 153

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::container() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 55

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/module/gentlesource_module_akismet/gentlesource_module_akismet.class.inc.php on line 186

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/module/gentlesource_module_akismet/gentlesource_module_akismet.class.inc.php on line 202

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_setting::read_all() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/modulecommon.class.inc.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connection() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_database::connect() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/database.class.inc.php on line 79

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/mysql.php on line 300

Deprecated: Non-static method DB::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/library/DB/common.php on line 1163

Deprecated: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/setting.class.inc.php on line 97

Deprecated: Non-static method c5t_module::load_module() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/omana/omana.net/comments/include/module.class.inc.php on line 160

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The Problem with High Self-Esteem - omana.net

The Problem with High Self-Esteem
by Elizabeth Menon

comment on this article...link to this article...recommend this article to a friend...

One needs to define the meaning of self-esteem, before the much complex word 'high self-esteem' is considered. Dictionaries define self-esteem as, " confidence and respect for oneself", or "how much a person likes, accepts, and respects himself, overall as a person". The National Association for Self-Esteem defines it as, " The experience of being capable of meeting life's challenges and being worthy of happiness". A balanced high self-esteem is essential for the development of a healthy human being.

Healthy self-esteem, based on basic principles such as worthiness, competence, self-reliance and a genuine desire to love and accept others, enables one to face the challenges in life and emerge victorious in adverse situations. But, if the self-esteem is based on external factors such as one's appearance, family connections, place of birth or social status, it may give an inflated opinion of one's worth and competence from a very early stage in life. The outcome would be an individual with overly high self-esteem or unhealthy high self-esteem, which is unearned.

Self-esteem starts to build up from the time of birth and then on it is a gradual process, helped by one’s parents, teachers, peers or society as a whole. It is very important to have good self-esteem during the formative years when one has many issues to deal with. Children may develop a tendency to have a low self-esteem or even an unhealthy high self-esteem that eventually turn into narcissism.

It is paramount that children at this stage are given support and training on basic principles and values in life, teaching them to have good balance between competence, accomplishments and self-worth. Any such training may be adversely affected by indiscriminate use of praise by the teachers and parents, in their attempt to make the children feel more confident. These children may reach adulthood without having understood the real meaning of healthy self-esteem; the pursuit of higher academic accomplishments may create individuals who feel superior, showing egotistical and patronizing behaviour patterns.

It's the over-inflated opinion of one’s self-worth and ability that leads to the overly high self-esteem. One can get aggressive if threatened; showing destructive behaviour, drug abuse, drink driving, road-rage or violence, just to prove that one is superior. They also have a vulnerable side to their character that needs constant pampering and may even change or hide personal details to show supremacy over friends and colleagues, either to get a better job or a higher social standing.

Various problems in life can change the perception of people and how they analyse situations. It could be marital problems, financial ruin, alcohol or drug abuse that bring about the changes in one's life, having to resort to different methods to cover up the situation. One may show signs of an unhealthy high self-esteem or enter a phase of denial and pretend to be happy, or go to the other extreme showing signs of low self-esteem. This extreme behaviour pattern often happens when there is total imbalance between what one believes in and what one is capable of doing or the inability to recognise it, which could be the result of an over-inflated opinion of one’s personal worth.

There are few people in any society with unhealthy self-esteem who have an uncontrollable urge to control everything. World History shows examples of 'people of small stature', trying to show the world that they are 'big'- Julius Caesar, Napoleon, Hitler and Stalin are few of the examples. Mussolini, Ho-Chi-Min, Mao, King Herod, and Pol Pot are among those who believed in their inflated opinion of self worth. The egotistical, dictatorial and conceited behaviour of these men and many others like them have one thing in common, the self-worthiness becoming narcissism, showing the disharmony between their sense of values and behaviour.

High self-esteem should not be confused with an overly high self-esteem, though quite difficult to distinguish between the two at times. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965) is the 'gold standard' measure, to arrive at the diagnosis. A sense of self worth, and a sense of one’s own capabilities in good equilibrium: harmony between the psychological strength and behaviour could keep the 'overly high self-esteem' at bay.

A good balance between sense of worthiness and confidence in one’s abilities is what is required in most situations. Self-education, to become aware of the situation and a desire to change by seeking professional help and interacting with close friends and immediate family would be most welcome and beneficial. But, holding on to the principles and values that one believes in and having the conviction to make the right choices when faced with adversities, one can enjoy a productive life.

© E Menon

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Comments

#0
I\\\'m just geting in touch with you Dr Menon, to let you know that I\\\'m using your article about high self esteem on my fairly new self-help website called Self Help Collective

http://www.selfhelpcollective.com/high-self-esteem.html

You can see the article here, with my comments on it

Thanks. I really like this article, and I learned a lot from reading it.

Steve M Nash
02/19/2009 - 10:42
Steve M Nash
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